Ayurveda - The Science of Life and Longevity
Ayurveda translates to the science or knowledge of life and strives to educate one on how to live a healthy well balanced life in tune with nature to achieve optimal health for the body and mind. The basic philosophy of Ayurveda is based on the five element theory. From the five elements evolves the controlling forces or the Doshas (body constitutions), Vata, Pitta, Kapha.
The quality of all these forces are governed by what we eat, how we live and in which environment and what our mental state is. And so, changes in any of these things for too long can make us “unwell” but not necessarily diseased. As an extension, if we remain unwell for too long, then our tissues (Dhatus) can lose their strength and become susceptible to foreign attack like infections, making us sick or dis-eased in the tissues of the body. Ayurveda is a holistic approach to life, that is prevention oriented. Using diet, Yoga, mediation, Pranayama, herbal remedies, massage and daily lifestyle changes to bring our bodies and minds back into balance. 
A very important concept in Ayurveda is that every person is genetically different - this gives each of us a very specific constitution (Prakriti) and a very individual way of interacting with the environment. Ayurveda teaches us about a framework in which we can modify our lifestyles to optimize our bodily functions. These ways are described in Ritucharya(routines to follow for the different seasons) and in Dinacharya(routines to be followed morning and night). If there is illness present in someway, then Ayurveda uses remedies based on herbs, minerals and the therapeutic procedures like Panchakarma.
According to Ayurveda, our life is a relationship; the relationship between you and your spouse, parents, children and friends are equally as important as the relationship with yourself, your body, mind and consciousness and the relationship with the Doshasin your body. These relationships are our life, and Ayurveda is a healing art which helps bring clarity in relationships. Having clarity in relationships brings compassion, and compassion is love, therefore love is clarity. Without clarity there is no insight to ourselves and life. This clarity, love and compassion is the key to the expansion of consciousness. Ayurveda is the art of insight which brings harmony, happiness, joy and bliss in our daily life and in our relationships. It brings a quality of consciousness, so one can get insight to deal with one’s inner life, emotions, hurt, grief and sadness. Ayurveda is a consciousness based approach to health, vitality and longevity. 
Principals of Ayurveda
The Five Elements: Building Blocks of Nature
The concept of the five elements is one of the basic principles in Ayurveda, everything in the universe is created by these five elements. According to Ayurveda, the five elements manifest in sequence, beginning with space (the pure, unified, unmanifested Cosmic Consciousness that is the source of all that exists).
Space /Ether - It is empty, light, subtle. We need space in order to live, move, grow and communicate. Space gives freedom, peace and expansion of consciousness.
Air - dry, light, clear and mobile. Air expresses itself in the movements of the muscles, the pumping of the heart, breathing, ingestion, elimination and expansion and contraction of the lungs. The flow of thought, desire and will are the principles of air, along with fear, anxiety, insecurity, and nervousness.
Fire – hot, dry, sharp. In the body, our biological “fire” in the solar plexus regulates body temperature and metabolism: digestion, absorption and assimilation. Fire is intelligence. It is necessary for transformation, attention, comprehension, appreciation and understanding. It also has some negative associations: anger, hatred, envy, criticism, ambition and competitiveness.
Water – fluid, heavy, soft, cold, wet. Water is associated with the sense of taste, without moisture the tongue can’t taste anything. It exists in the body as plasma, serum, saliva, nasal secretion, cerebrospinal fluid, urine and sweat. Water is contentment, love and compassion. It creates thirst edema and obesity.
Earth – gross, heavy, static, rough, hard, and dense. It gives strength, structure and stamina to the body. The body’s solid structures are derived from the earth element. It promotes forgiveness, support, groundedness, and growth. It also creates attachment, greed and depression.
The 3 Body Constitutions or Energies compared to nature:
Vata is a combination of AIR and ETHER and can be compared to the wind chill. It is responsible for all the movements of the body, mind, and sense and the process of elimination. Its actions are movement, action, transportation. Time of day is evening. 
Qualities: dry, light, cold, rough, subtle, mobile, clear
People with more Vata in their constitutions tend to be thin, with a slender frame and prominent joints, delicate skin that is naturally dry, and dry voluminous hair. Their physical characteristics are oval face, small eyes, dry skin, thin hair and long thing fingers. Their metabolism and sleep pattern is always changing. They are quick and lively in thought, speech and action, and make friends easily. They talk a lot, walk a lot and complain a lot. They make a lot of hand gestures. They are good at attracting people with their talking and expressions. They are very intuitive, imaginative and artistic. They are good in writing poems, creating art, or dancing. They love to travel, or be constantly on the go. The Vata mind is like a busy bee, constantly buzzing around, moving in circles. They are born worriers – worry about everything and anything. Often feel anxious, nervous and worried. Many times their mind is in the future, not enjoying the present moment. They are good at playing the “what if” game. Vata’s slogan is “Can I change my mind? 
Pitta is a combination of FIRE and WATER. It is heat and can be compared to temperature. It is responsible for heat, metabolism, and energy production and digestive functions of the body. Its actions are fire, heat, transformation, conversion, digestion. Time of day is afternoon.
Qualities: hot, sharp, oily, light, acidic, mobile, liquid
People with more Pitta in their constitutions tend to be of medium proportions, with a frame that is neither petite nor heavy, warm skin that is very fair or ruddy and may be sensitive, and fine hair that tends towards premature greying or thinning. They are sharp and determined in thought, speech and action. There is an element of purpose to their step, an intensity to their voice. Pitta’s are very ambitious, very intellectual, and they are very determined they make good leaders. They are moderate sleepers and gravitate towards cooler environments. When out of balance can be a bit bossy, they don’t have a lot of patience. Self-confidence and an entrepreneurial spirit are hallmarks of balanced Pitta.
Kapha is a combination of EARTH and WATER. It can be compared to the humidity in the air. It is responsible for physical stability, proper body structure, and fluid balance. Its actions are lubrication, tissue building, and construction. Time of day is morning.
Qualities: heavy, oily, cold, soft, static, cloudy, dense, smooth, dull
People with more Kapha in their constitutions tend to be of larger proportions, with a robust frame and padded joints, thick smooth skin that may tend towards oiliness, and rich, wavy hair. They are stable and calm in thought, speech and action, and are easy-going and supportive in relationships. There is an element of steadiness to their step, a quality of serenity in their smile. Loyalty is usually their second name. They are long, heavy sleepers and uncomfortable in damp, clammy environments. They kapha body type is a little more heavy, they are also really, really beautiful people. They have thick dark hair a lot of times curly hair, thick eye brows, thick eye lashes, big lips. Calm and sweetness of disposition are hallmarks of balanced Kapha.
Your prakruti does not change, it remains constant throughout life. The state of the doshas can change. This changed pattern is called vikrutior conditional state, as it does not match the original pattern. It causes disruptions that eventually result in some kind of dis-ease in your system.